zu Neurofeedback und Biofeedback
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EEG biofeedback as a treatment for substance use disorders: review, rating of efficacy, and recommendations for further research.
- Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2008 Mar;33(1):1-28.
- Sokhadze TM, Cannon RL, Trudeau DL.
- Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has been employed in substance use disorder (SUD) over the last three decades. The SUD is a complex series of disorders with frequent comorbidities and EEG abnormalities of several types. EEG biofeedback has been employed in conjunction with other therapies and may be useful in enhancing certain outcomes of therapy. Based on published clinical studies and employing efficacy criteria adapted by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, alpha theta training-either alone for alcoholism or in combination with beta training for stimulant and mixed substance abuse and combined with residential treatment programs, is probably efficacious. Considerations of further research design taking these factors into account are discussed and descriptions of contemporary research are given.
New insights into neuromodulatory approaches for the treatment of pain.
- J Pain. 2008 Mar;9(3):193-9.
- Jensen MP, Hakimian S, Sherlin LH, Fregni F.
- Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195-6490, USA. email@example.com
Two lines of evidence about the association between the experience of pain and brain state (measured via electroencephalogram or EEG) have recently come to light. First, research from a number of sources suggests a link between brain EEG activity and the experience of pain. Specifically, this research suggests that the subjective experience of pain is associated with relatively lower amplitudes of slower wave (delta, theta, and alpha) activity and relatively higher amplitudes of faster wave (beta) activity. Second, there has been a recent increase in interest in interventions that impact the cortical neuromodulation of pain, including behavioral treatments (such as self-hypnosis training and neurofeedback) and both invasive and noninvasive brain stimulation. Although a direct causal link between experience of pain and brain activity as measured by EEG has not been established, the targeting of pain treatment at a cortical level by trying to affect EEG rhythms directly is an intriguing possibility. PERSPECTIVE: Preliminary evidence suggests the possibility, which has not yet adequately tested or proven, that the experience of chronic pain is linked to cortical activity as assessed via an electroencephalogram. Support for this hypothesis would have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie a number of pain treatments, and for developing new innovative treatments for chronic pain management.
Neurofeedback for treating tinnitus.
- Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:473-85.
- Dohrmann K, Weisz N, Schlee W, Hartmann T, Elbert T.
- University of Konstanz, Department of Psychology, Konstanz, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Many individuals with tinnitus have abnormal oscillatory brain activity. Led by this finding, we have developed a way to normalize such pathological activity by neurofeedback techniques (Weisz et al. (2005). PLoS Med., 2: e153). This is achieved mainly through enhancement of tau activity, i.e., oscillatory activity produced in perisylvian regions within the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz) and concomitant reduction in delta power range (0.5-4 Hz). This activity is recorded from electrodes placed on the frontal scalp. We have found that modification of the tau-to-delta ratio significantly reduces tinnitus intensity. Participants who successfully modified their oscillatory pattern profited from the treatment to the extent that the tinnitus sensation became completely abolished. Overall, this neurofeedback training was significantly superiorin reducing tinnitus-related distress than frequency discrimination training.